December is a time to reflect on the past 11 months and look forward to and plan for the up-and-coming 12 months. Instead of writing another article, I’d like to see if you’ve been paying attention. How do you score on the below True or False quiz?


 1) Body type categorizing is an effective method to understand what diet and exercise is best to achieve fat loss = True | False

2) Eating at night will pile on the pounds = True | False

3) Dietary fat keeps you feeling full longer, so you’ll eat less = True | False

4) Lifting weights can be better than cardio for burning fat = True | False

5) When people have stubborn fat or weight that they can’t lose… they are being lazy and should eat less and do more = True | False

6) Half of all new health club members quit in the first six months of signing up and 90% of those who join health and fitness clubs will stop going regularly with the first three months = True | False

7) Hormones are the most important component when trying to build muscle, focusing on eliciting testosterone, human growth hormone and IGF-1 response = True | False

8) Our Paleolithic ancestors were primarily carnivores = True | False

9) The best time to have coffee is before a workout and when you feel tired = True | False

10) Static stretching is not the best way to improve your range of motion = True | False




1) True. Body typing will provide a good initial understanding the basic guidelines regarding how your body’s metabolism, nervous system, hormones and fuel systems operate. It is important to realise that all these types can become obese.


Think of these types as underlying ways your bodies prefer to work but through lifestyle, nutrition and exercise you can affect the natural tendencies of your body. The four types we categorize people into are: ectomorph (muscle burner/thyroid), mesomorph (mixed burner/adrenal), endomorph (sugar burner/pituitary) and gonad (mainly female — pear shape)


2) False. Putting on fat has more to do with the quality of food you consume, the nutrient-to-calorie ratio, the timing of starch and total energy over a 24-hour period or over a week. The total picture matters more than trying to reduce calories in the evening — or other times of the day — calories are only one piece of many in the puzzle.


3) False. The fat-satiety rule came into existence due to the fact that fat takes longer to digest, but it will not help you control your appetite. Foods containing protein are better at fighting off hunger for longer. Staying well hydrated also has a big impact on controlling your ghrelin levels and therefore maintaining satiety for longer.


4) True. Weight training burns a lot of calories and raises resting metabolic rate. Resistance exercise makes the muscles become more sensitive to insulin — equates to less fat storing. In addition, strength training resets the part of the brain that is involved in releasing hormones, so that cortisol balance (stress) improves. It also elevates the most beneficial fat burning hormones — testosterone, human growth hormone, adrenaline and lactic acid when performed properly.


5) False. Working harder and eating less creates more stress, which can make your body hold onto fat. Nutrient deficiencies and hormone imbalances are quite often the underlying issue holding people back from losing and maintaining fat (weight) loss.


6) True. The International Health Club Association reported these statistics. Modern sedentary lifestyles are killing us. How we approach and think about fitness as a society needs to be adjusted to focus on social aspects to drive adherence and make people remember how fun it is to move.


7) False. Today we know that these anabolic hormones are not the driving force for muscular growth. Instead researchers have found that mechanical tension, muscle damage and metabolic stress are the primary causes of muscle development.


8) False. A paper called Calcium in Evolutionary Perspective by S. Boyd Eaton and Dorothy A. Nelson states that our ancestors were largely insectivorous. We survived by eating creepy crawlies with a bit of meat, vegetables and fruit on the side.


9) False. Coffee is not a good answer for tiredness. If tired, instead of having a coffee, you should get more sleep. Coffee will work best when your adenosine receptors are functioning well and not under stress. A coffee pre-workout is acceptable.


10) True. The common perception is that if you’re flexible you also have good range of motion and vice versa. But this is incorrect. Mobility refers to how a joint moves (the range of motion), where as the term flexibility refers to the elasticity of muscles. A flexible muscle doesn’t always equate to an increase in range of motion at joints, which is the functional representation of the common term flexibility.


Phil is founder and master trainer at Body Expert Systems. Contact him on 0934 782763, at his website or through Star Fitness (

Phil Kelly

Phil is an avid sportsman and loves most things fitness. With the final realisation that he would not be an All Black, he turned his full focus to studying the human body in regard to improving movement and posture, developing strength, function and performance, as well as scrutinising the conventional wisdom of nutrition for fat loss and performance. He loves challenging the 'norm' and is dedicated to the prosperity and health of his clients and the community. He has a mission to educate and empower people to "be all they can be" by providing accurate, research proven and industry leading information. 


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